Different causes of maladjustment are being discussed in this article.There are many causes of maladjustment behavior which are as fellows.
Many factors acting together arc responsible for one’s mental health or illness. Occasionally one factor or another may predominate, but even then the weakness or activity of other factors affects how one will respond to events or conditions. At any one time our behavior depends upon characteristics we have inherited, the stage of our development as accelerated or retarded by metabolic or nutritional factors, physical potentialities, and patterns of learned behavior all acting and reacting in complex, changing systems of environmental stimuli. Some persons who might have physical or psychological susceptibilities to stress might never encounter the conditions that would trigger illness. Others Who may be basically stronger might encounter such stress that they become ill. Each person has a breaking point. For some it is less than for others.
Noyes and Kolb (1963) observe that disturbed communication between and adjustments of various psychological and physiological subsystems, rather than either alone, arc the main determinants of breakdown
Stresses in interpersonal relations and in the socio-cultural field are no less to be considered than stresses in the biophysical sphere. Behavior cannot be adequately described in the terms of .in impersonal disorganization of cellular ‘structure or physiological processes, nor do there seem to be any psychiatric symptoms—except in some cases of toxic organic syndromes—which can be considered as correlates of brain changes, physiological, biochemical, or electrical.
Any disturbance of the brain or other bodily tissues which influence the capacity of man to receive, perceive, and integrate information from his environment with past information will lead to defective psycho social functioning and thereby disturb personality functioning. Any physical disturbance which upsets man’s capacity to communicate with others again will lead to ineffective communication that produces disturbing feedback. ‘Hie latter, in turn, induces anxiety, conflict, and personality unrest.
Thus one may recognize as etiologic [causal} factors in disrupting the communicative activity between men the effects of constitutional defects in the perceptual system, such as deafness or blindness, failures of development or acquired defects in the central nervous system (the integrating organ of communication), or the later dysfunction of this organ due to metabolic or toxic agents.
Again, failures to learn language, to understand social codes, or to speak effectively, with resultant interference with later ability to recognize the integrate psycho social or provide guiding signs again may be seen as contributing factors to disturbance in communication or psycho-social illness. Viewed as a disorder in interpersonal communication, the argument relative to the etiology of psychiatric illness as primarily psychical or .psychological become meaningless One attempts to understand the totality of the personalty functioning in a communicative relationship with others.
The expected incidence of schizophrenia among siblings of schizophrenics ranges from 5 to 10 percent if both parents are normal, from 8 to 18 percent if one parent is schizophrenic, hut rises to 45 to 68 percent in children of two schizophrenic parents. Questions have been raised about the statistical treatment or lack of comparability of the twin groups in these studies, however, so that the issue of genetic involvement is debatable.
Biological And Physical Causes of Maladjustment Behavior
Psychosomatic- disorders may accompany, augment, or be precipitated by almost any other mental or physical illness and greatly complicate the symptom picture. ‘Ibis is true especially of the biological decline due to aging.
It is true, of course, that many disease conditions influence or cause mental disorder directly. Because they arc listed under chronic organic brain disorders.. It might be added, however, that any of several biological conditions mav precipitate psychological stress reactions. The list would include oxygen deprivation, perhaps due to incarnadining or to high altitude, nutritional deficiencies, Such as due to starvation or lack of vitamins, sleep or dream deprivation, and sensory deprivation.
Social Learning Experiences.
Perhaps the greatest contributor to maladjustment is ill the area of socialization. When a child is born into a family he forms a meaningful relationship first with his mother, then with other members of his family who satisfy his needs and administer rewards and punishments for his behavior. Through these relationships, systems of punishments and reinforcements, and by generalization of attitudes so formed to others, the child comes to attach certain values to people, to depend upon them, and to form conceptions about himself from these interactions.
If the early family experiences are pleasant and reassuring, the child adjusts and develops well socially, forms wholesome self attitudes, and is able to accomplish various developmental tasks with a minimum of stress. Should any of numerous unfavorable family conditions or child rearing practices establish fears, conflicts, hostilities, or negative self-reactions, not only will the person experience.
These, in turn, afflict future self- and other-adjustments, and the stresses amass like a rolling snowball. Depriving a child of a dose, scurry maternal relationship, whether due to deliberate or unintentional separation or rejection, at a critical period can reduce his ability to form close relationships of trust and affection with either parent or with others later in life.
Frustrations ill toilet training, of incontinent or severe discipline, rejection, indulgence, domination, jealousy of siblings or of a parent, unreasonable demands for perfection—all prevent a child from developing social skills and favorable self-attitudes and thus reduce his ability to cope with frustration and his resilience to stress. The effects arc often cumulative and progressive. Poorly adjusted in his family, the child may lack the skills to adjust well to his peer group, and lacking these skills, he may fail’to adjust in his schooling, his work, his marriage, and possibly fail in understanding hi own children.
Special social or catastrophic conditions may aggravate these problems. Unemployment, poverty, war or threat of war, natural disasters, such as floods, earthquakes, or tornadoes, may bring weaknesses to the point of illness. Problems of religious, racial, or social class rumination may affect self-evaluations and social interaction. These have been mentioned as sources of external frustration earlier in this chapter.