Aryan people arrived in India from Iran.They recognized their origin from this region.They gave themselves the name of Aryan (noble, dominator). Your passage will be sown with ruins and desolation.The second penetration in India was the Arian invasion during a period of almost five hundred years in the middle of the third millennium BC. This migration marked the final exodus of the Andites from their place of origin in Turkestan.The first Aryan centers were scattered on the northern half of India, especially in the northwest.
This Aryan flow was divided into two streams. One ended in Iran, and was responsible for the vast and enduring Persian civilization. The other went further eastward and, from Afghanistan, penetrated into what are now Pakistan and India. This current was formed by the Indo-Iranians (called “Indo-Aryans” normally). They spoke Sanskrit, the oldest known Indo-European language.
Aryan People Invasion
Gradually the Aryans extended their colonies over the Punjab, from the banks of the Indus to the Saraswati, a river that has now dried up, but which then flowed along the eastern boundary of the Punjab and through the deserts of Eajputana. As time wore on, and the fear of reprisals on the part of the aborigines whom they had dispossessed diminished, the Aryans began to look more tolerantly upon them. Not all the tribes with whom they came in contact were equally uncivilized, for in the Rig Yeda there are references to non- Aryan chiefs who possessed forts and castles. In point of civilization some of the peoples whom they conquered were probably even superior to the Aryans. For such as these the feeling of repugnance would not be quite so strong ;
.Centuries must have passed while the Aryans were bringing the whole of the Punjab under their power and influence. Fresh streams of immigrants from time to time must have flowed from Afghanistan down the passes into India, merging with the early settlers or passing on to new tracts of country. Bands worked their way down the Indus, colonizing Sindh and Guzerat, and turning north-eastward found their way into Malwa. Others again settled in Kashmir, of whom some thence marched along the foot of the Himalayas into the United Provinces and beyond into Behar. Before the end of the period dealt with by the hymns of the Rig Veda the banks of the Jumna and the Ganges had been reached by exploring bands of Aryans.
Absence of caste, And Freedom Of Women In Aryan Civilization
While the Aryans were colonizing the Punjab, there are two points concerning their social life of which it is specially important to take note : the one is the absence of caste distinctions, and the other is the social condition of women. There is no mention of such a system as caste in the Rig Veda, except in the tenth book, which, as has already been pointed out, was composed in a later age. Nor is there even a trace of the existence of hereditary divisions of the community corresponding in any way to it. There were indeed men and families famous for their skill in the composition of hymns, but the Rishis, as they w^ere called, had no special privileges. Every man from the highest to the lowest was a warrior and a husbandman. There is therefore both negative and positive evidence that caste restrictions did not then exist.
When the Aryans entered India they carried with them their concepts of Deity, preserved in what remained of the traditions of the religion of the second garden. But the Brahmin priests failed to resist the pagan impetus fostered by sudden contact with the lower religions of the Dekan after the racial destruction of the Aryans. Thus, the vast majority of the population fell into captivity of the enslaving superstitions of the lower religions; and in that way it turned out that India failed to produce the high civilization that was envisioned in earlier times.
The spiritual awakening of the sixth century before Christ did not last in India, having been extinguished even before the Mohammedan invasion. But one day perhaps a more important Gautama will emerge that will lead to the whole India in search of the living God, and then the world will be able to witness the flowering of the cultural potentialities of a versatile people that for so long remain comatose under the paralyzing influence of a Spiritual vision without progression.Culture rests on a biological basis, but castes alone cannot perpetuate Aryan culture, for religion, true religion, is the indispensable source of that higher energy that drives men to establish a superior civilization based on The human fraternity.
When analyzing the consequences of Aryan domination, one must start from its repercussion in the social sphere. In this sense the most characteristic is the implementation of the caste system, which is a peculiarity, since it is not found as it was structured by the Aryans in any other civilization.
Originally the Aryans divided the population into four castes. Kajdan calls them varnas, it is their name in Sanskrit(sacred language of the Aryans, that is, the one used only by their priests ).
Caste In Aryan Civilization
- First caste : That of the Brahmins (priests).
- Second caste : That of the Kchatriyas or chatrias (warriors).
- Third caste : The one of the vaicyas (vaisias). It includes farmers, artisans and merchants of Aryan origin.
- Fourth caste : The one of the sudras. It includes the entire non-Aryan population massively exploited by the Aryan State. Without any participation in social life, without any civil or political right, not even in religious life, except for being mercilessly exploited by the Aryan priests, creators of this social order.
The first caste, that of the Brahmins, was considered to have come out of the mouth of the god Brahma; Only they knew the designs of the gods. They were considered the same as the Egyptian pharaohs, gods on earth, although they were also seen as teachers, guru, because they were in charge of teaching men the tradition. The brahmin is at the top of the social pyramid.
They follow him in second place, but with very high rank, the warriors, the Kchatriyas or chatrias. His main occupation is of course war, military command. Both they and the priests are noble, they constitute estates of the exploiting social class.